Black Hole Similarities & Look Alikes:
Illusions Delusions and Real
In StarSteps, even a fourth grader could explain the vast differences in measurement of a flat plane and a curved ball; neglecting the curve disfigures reality with a flat earth belief when the curve on the ball's surface is not considered in measurement. The extended concept of E=MC2 throws the same curve ball measurement across the micro to macro realities, with a unified integration of space/time/mass/matter/energy/gravity through the radius of curvature concept of all natural law – a recognition permitting simple 4th grade understanding of PhD level science to filter down to the people, carrying with it the capacity to overcome any known problem today with highly advanced energy systems and greatly expanded comprehension of energy space time relationships
Galaxy Birth Processes
"....If we were to direct a large telescope on earth towards this gas cloud, we would not be able to see it at all. Since all of the light coming from the galaxies behind it is now being absorbed, we would see only that there was an unusually large dark area in space. We would probably refer to it as a 'dark nebula,' a tremendous body of gas, still somewhat rarefied according to our usual concept of gas; which emits no light, but which does absorb, and convert to lower frequencies, almost all of the light, and other forms of radiant energy which reach it from the countless radiating stars throughout the universe."
"......We must recall at this point, that it is the central spheroid of the galaxy which is formed first. It is in the central portion, that planets would first reach conditions suitable for life, and it is upon these planets that life would first achieve a high degree of development. Intelligent life might therefore be said to radiate from the center of a galaxy outward toward the periphery. A process which might take place over a period of several millions of years after the first race had achieved space travel. It is with this thought, and in a very humble frame of mind that we begin our return journey to our tiny planet earth; located almost on the extreme outer edge of our own galaxy."
At this point in our progress of understanding, we shall embark upon a most ambitious journey. We are going out into space. Into the remotest depths of inter galactic space, so that we may observe, at close range, the birth processes of a new star cluster or 'Galaxy.' We will take along our consciousness, our ability to observe, and our understanding. We must, of course, leave our bodies behind, since they would not fare well in space, and also because their mass would create a gravitational field which would tend to alter the natural conditions at our point of observation. We will seek a spot which is at least a few million light years distant from any other galaxy or accumulation of matter; for it is only within these remote areas that we may observe the birth process of a new galaxy.
In the first part of this book, we discussed the almost inconceivably large number of particles which are found in each cubic inch of our atmosphere at sea level. As we move outward from the earth's surface we find that the number of particles diminishes rapidly, but still remains surprisingly large. When we have reached a height of one hundred miles we find that there are only about one millionth as many particles per cubic inch as we found at the surface, this is a density of matter so minute that we require very sensitive instruments, even to detect its existence. Yet, if we count the individual particles, we will find that there are still about 400 million, million particles in each cubic inch of space. At a few hundred miles elevation the density has diminished another million times, and we say that we have entered 'space', yet there are still many millions of particles per cubic inch.
We come to the startling realization that there simply is no such thing as 'empty space.' Astronomers have estimated that even in the remotest depths of intergalactic space, (which is our destination on this trip) there will still be found from twenty five to seventy five or more nuclear or atomic particles per cubic inch. Most of these particles are protons, or simple atoms which have attained escape velocity from the surfaces of some star, and which may have been wandering aimlessly about, perhaps for billions of years, coming into occasional collision with ocher particles, but usually with sufficient relative velocity so that mutual capture could not take place.
In the vicinity of existing galaxies, the gravitational fields created by the innumerable stars within those galaxies, tend to draw in the random particles, many of which eventually fall into one or another of the stars, and thereby assist somewhat in replenishing the mass which each star is constantly converting into energy.
We must, therefore, seek a spot which is remote from any of the existing galaxies, and approximately equidistant from the nearer ones. Even in this remote area of space we will find countless numbers of particles of matter, anti units of charge; electrons, protons or simple atoms, which have achieved escape velocity from some star, or which have been formed in space by random approach and capture. In short, we have all of the building blocks of nature, present in an exceedingly tenuous and diffuse state.
Since each of the particles of matter has mass, each has a force of attraction existing between it and ever other particle of matter in the area.
If we accept the concept of the non linearity of natural law as previously outlined in this text, we find that each of these particles is also being repelled slightly by the surrounding galaxies or galactic clusters.
These forces are almost inconceivably small, yet the net result of their action is to create a tendency upon the part of each randomly moving particle to move ever closer to the center of the area of attraction, which is also approximately but not exactly the center or 'null balance' point of the repulsion of the surrounding galaxies.
We will assume that we have now reached the point from which we will observe the birth of our new galaxy. This point is at the center of a sphere of space, perhaps thirty thousand light years in diameter, within which the final concentration of matter will take place.
We must be prepared to exercise a great deal of patience, because the forces involved, and the resulting accelerations are so minute that many millions of years will probably elapse before we can detect any significant increase in the number of particles per unit of volume. Nevertheless, all of the particles within several hundreds of thousands of light years are slowly but surely acquiring a velocity in our direction.
As the concentration of matter at the center of our system increases, the intensity of its field will also increase and will add, not only to the velocity, but also to the acceleration of the inward moving particles. We are observing the condensation of a tremendously large volume of exceedingly ratified gas into a relatively small volume.
Let us assume that one hundred million years have passed since we first occupied our point of observation at the center of the newly forming galaxy. All of the particles within some thousands of light years have now acquired a very respectable velocity in our direction, and the density of the gas surrounding us is increasing with comparative rapidity. We observe however, that the particles are not falling directly toward the central point of the condensation.
We can understand this if we realize that the center or null point of the force of repulsion is determined only by the distribution and the distance of the surrounding galaxies, while the center of the force of attraction is determined by the distribution of matter within the area of condensation. Since the center of 'push' is not at the same point as the center of 'pull', there is a tendency toward the creation of an angular velocity. That is: the particles, instead of falling directly toward the center, will tend to spiral inward. Eventually this rotational motion will become general throughout the mass.
The plane in which this spin begins is determined by the location of the existing galaxies and the relative density of particles in different parts of the condensing mass, but once begun, the motion tends constantly to increase as the condensation proceeds.
The particles which are upon either side of the central plane of spin tend to fall toward the plane as well as toward the center, while those particles which are nearly perpendicular to the center of the plane of spin rend to fall inward more rapidly because of their smaller rotational velocities. Our gas cloud now begins to take on the shape of a disk with a somewhat oblate sphere at the center. The galaxy has begun to assume its final shape, though as yet, there are no stars within it nor does it emir any light.
If we were to direct a large telescope on earth towards this gas cloud, we would not be able to see it at all. Since all of the light coming from the galaxies behind it is now being absorbed, we would see only that there was an unusually large dark area in space. We would probably refer to it as a 'dark nebula,' a tremendous body of gas, still somewhat rarefied according to our usual concept of gas; which emits no light, but which does absorb, and convert to lower frequencies, almost all of the light, and other forms of radiant energy which reach it from the countless radiating stars throughout the universe.
As the nebula continues to contract, areas of comparatively high density will develop in many parts of the mass. Each of these points will become a local center of gravity, and accelerated condensation will occur towards these points.
The gas cloud now becomes broken up into a multitude of individual spheres, each of which continues to condense upon its own center, just as a cloud condenses into myriads of tiny water droplets.
Let us now direct our attention to one of these 'droplets' which is eventually to become a star in our new galaxy. It is still several millions of miles in diameter, but shrinking rapidly.
As the gas cloud condenses, the energy which it contains, becomes concentrated. The particles which while they were drifting about in space, had almost infinitely long 'mean free paths’, now come into more and more frequent and more and more violent collisions.
The temperature of the mass constantly rises. The kinetic energy which the particles have been building up during the millions of years while they were accelerating toward the common center, is now being converted into thermal energy. Eventually the mass begins to emit photons having frequencies in the visible portion ...........Full Text